Postgraduate Programs In July 1999, the Senate passed the Postgraduate Studies Program of the Desertification and Desert Cultivation Centre, which was upgraded to an Institute on 2003. The Program included Postgraduate Diploma, M.Sc. (by courses and research), M.Sc. (by research) and Ph.D. Target groups 1. Staff working in ministries, institutions.. etc involved in desertification and desert cultivation issues. 2. Extension workers desiring to upgrade their knowledge in desertification and desert cultivation. 3. Individuals who would like to acquire knowledge and basic information in desertification. 4. Teaching staff at basic and high- school levels. 5. Staff working in federal and state ministries and localities, who are involved in management and execution of projects for combating desertification. 6. Teaching and research staff in universities, research centres ... etc. 7. Staff working in international organizations and NGO projects requiring knowledge of desertification phenomenon. 8. Newly employed staff desiring to gain background knowledge and information in desertification studies and fresh graduates planning to join careers in desertification issues. 9. Staff from government and NGOs involved in the formulation and execution of projects related to combating desertification. Postgraduate Diploma Program (Objectives) 1.To provide the participants with interdisciplinary and integrated basic physical, biological, technical and socio-economic knowledge essential for understanding the desertification phenomenon and the appropriate technology for combating it. 2. To increase the participants knowledge in the socio-economic issues pertaining to combating desertification. 3. To introduce the participants to selected modern technology for assessment, monitoring and evaluation of projects designed for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. 4. To enhance students' knowledge about the concepts of crop and animal production under stress environments. 5. To train the students on undertaking a case study in the area of desertification.